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ECEN 4024 senior design Citation Style: IEEE: IEEE Style

Keep in mind

Engineers write reports and document their work by citing articles, books, standards, and laboratory notebooks, verbal communications, etc.  As a best practice, cite your sources as you encounter them.

Direct quotations require quotation marks, paraphrasing does not, but in either instance you must be sure to correctly cite the source.

IEEE Style Manual


IEEE Style uses a notational method of referencing when referring to a source of information within the text of a document. 

In its simplest form a citation is given in the text, consisting of a number enclosed by square brackets:

The full details of the source are given in a numerical reference list at the end of the document:


See Reference List Entries or All Examples for details on how to construct references for specific resources such as books, journals and web pages.

in-text citation

A number enclosed in square brackets, eg.[1] or [26], placed in the text of the essay, indicates the relevant reference.

Each reference number should be enclosed in square brackets on the same line as the text, before any punctuation, with a space before the bracket.

Citations are numbered in the order in which they appear in the text and each citation corresponds to a numbered reference containing publication information about the source cited in the reference list at the end of the publication, essay or assignment.

Once a source has been cited, the same number is used in all subsequent references.

No distinction is made between print and electronic references when citing within the text.

Here are some examples of this kind of referencing :

"...end of the line for my research [13]."
"The theory was first put forward in 1987 [1]." "Scholtz [2] has argued that......."
"Several recent studies [3, 4, 15, 16] have suggested that..."
"For example, see [7]."


Article Reference


Journal article

[4] J. U. Duncombe, "Infrared navigation - Part I: An assessment of feasability," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices, vol. ED-11, pp. 34-39, Jan. 1959.

eJournal (from database)

[5] H. K. Edwards and V. Sridhar, "Analysis of software requirements engineering exercises in a global virtual team setup," Journal of Global Information Management, vol. 13, no. 2, p. 21+, April-June 2005. [Online]. Available: Academic OneFile, [Accessed May 31, 2005].

eJournal (from internet)

[6] A. Altun, "Understanding hypertext in the context of reading on the web: Language learners' experience," Current Issues in Education, vol. 6, no. 12, July 2003. [Online]. Available: [Accessed Dec. 2, 2004].

[1] U.L.S. librarians University of Pittsburgh., "Citation Styles: APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, IEEE: IEEE Style," in University of Pittsburgh, University Library System, Course & Subject Guides, 2016. [Online]. Available: Accessed: Aug. 14, 2016.   Verbatim copy of contents, as shown. 

References to Books

Basic Format: [1] J. K. Author, “Title of chapter in the book,” in Title of His Published Book, x
th ed. City of Publisher, Country if not USA: Abbrev. of Publisher, year, ch.x, sec.x, pp.

Single author or editor
[1] W.-K. Chen, Linear Networks and Systems. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1993, pp. 123-135.

[2] S. M. Hemmington, Soft Science. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan Press, 1997.

[3] D. Sarunyagate, Ed., Lasers. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996.

Two or three authors or editors
[4] T. Jordan and P. A. Taylor, Hacktivism and Cyberwars: Rebels with a cause? London: Routledge, 2004.

[5] U. J. Gelinas, Jr., S. G. Sutton, and J. Fedorowicz, Business Processes and Information Technology. Cincinnati: South-Western/Thomson Learning, 2004.

More than three authors
[6] R. Hayes, G. Pisano, D. Upton, and S. Wheelwright, Operations, Strategy, and Technology: Pursuing the competitive edge. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005.

Later edition
[7] K. Schwalbe, Information Technology Project Management, 3rd ed. Boston: Course Technology, 2004.

[8] M. N. DeMers, Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems, 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley, 2005.

No author
[9] The Oxford Dictionary of Computing, 5th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Multivolume work
[10] J. Voogt and G. Knezek, Eds., International Handbook of Information Technology in Primary and Secondary Education, 9th ed., 2 Vols. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1993.

[11] M. Bell, et al., Universities Online: A survey of online education and services in Australia, Occasional Paper Series 02-A. Canberra: Department of Education, Science and Training, 2002.

References to Standards, Patents, Technical Reports [1]

Technical report


[10] J. H. Davis and J. R. Cogdell, “Calibration program for the 16-foot antenna,” Elect. Eng. Res. Lab., Univ. Texas,
Austin, Tech. Memo. NGL-006-69-3, Nov. 15, 1987.


[11] J. P. Wilkinson, “Nonlinear resonant circuit devices,” U.S. Patent 3 624 125, July 16, 1990.


[12] IEEE Criteria for Class IE Electric Systems, IEEE Standard 308, 1969.


[1] J. O. Williams, “Narrow-band analyzer,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Elect. Eng., Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA, 1993.

[1] U.L.S. librarians University of Pittsburgh., "Citation Styles: APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, IEEE: IEEE Style," in University of Pittsburgh, University Library System, Course & Subject Guides, 2016. [Online]. Available: Accessed: Aug. 14, 2016.