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Quick Guide to APA Citation Style: Home

APA Citation Manual (6th Edition)

This guide gives the basic format of American Psychological Association (APA) Style for citing sources. For a complete overview of APA Style, consult the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association listed below.  

The examples in the different tabs at the top are taken from or are modified from examples from these guides. They are single-spaced to save space. See the "References" List section for the correct formatting.

The 6th edition of the APA Manual recommends including a digital object identifier (DOI) when citing an electronic source. The DOI is a permanent link to the published electronic full text and the location of the text. The DOI consists of a long alphanumeric code (e.g. doi: 10.1007/b105055) and is unique to its associated document. Not all publishers provide a DOI number to a document, but when it is available, use the DOI in the citation. If you cannot find a DOI number for your source, you can try looking it up using the CrossRef free DOI lookup. To learn more about the DOI system, visit