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ECEN 4024 senior design Citation Style: IEEE: Understanding Plagiarism

Plagiarism Tutorial

 In order to view and use these tutorials, users should download Adobe Shockwave Player 7 or later. The tutorials are best viewed using speakers or headphones.  This tutorial is from the University of Pittsburgh.

Paraphrasing and Direct Quotation

"The basic principles described below apply to all disciplines and should guide your own citation practice. Even more fundamental, however, is this general rule: when in doubt, cite." [1]

1. Quotation. Any verbatim use of a source, no matter how large or small the quotation, must be placed in quotation marks or, if longer than three lines, clearly indented beyond the regular margin. The quotation must be accompanied, either within the text or in a footnote, by a precise indication of the source, identifying the author, title, place and date of publication (where relevant), and page numbers. Even if you use only a short phrase, or even one key word, you must use quotation marks in order to set off the borrowed language from your own, and you must cite the source.

2. Paraphrase. Paraphrase is a restatement of another person’s thoughts or ideas in your own words, using your own sentence structure. A paraphrase is normally about the same length as the original. Although you don’t need to use quotation marks when you paraphrase, you absolutely do need to cite the source, either in parentheses or in a footnote. If another author’s idea is particularly well put, quote it verbatim and use quotation marks to distinguish his or her words from your own. Paraphrase your source if you can restate the idea more clearly or simply, or if you want to place the idea in the flow of your own thoughts—though be sure to announce your source in your own text (“Albert Einstein believed that…”) and always include a citation. Paraphrasing does not relieve you of the responsibility to cite your source." [1]

[1] Princeton University, "Acknowledging your sources - academic integrity at Princeton university," in Academic Integrity Princeton University, 2011. [Online]. Available: Accessed: Aug. 15, 2016.

How to Reference - Tough questions

"Frequently asked questions

What is the IEEE Style? The IEEE is the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and they specify a system of citation in their guidance for authors writing for their publications. IEEE is a numeric system in which a source is given a citation
number in-text in [ ]. The full details of the source are provided in a reference list at the end, ordered according to first appearance in
the text.

Where do I place the citation? Put your citation number directly after the reference, not at the end of the sentence
(unless this is where the reference is mentioned). Punctuation should be placed outside of the brackets. For example: ...similar results have been recorded [1-3] that support this hypothesis.

When must I use page numbers in  my in-text citations? It is important to give a page number with a reference in the following circumstances:
when quoting directly: Ÿwhen referring to a specific detail in a text (for example, a specific theory or idea, an illustration, a table, a set of statistics).This might mean giving an individual page number or a small range of pages from which you have taken the information. Giving page numbers enables the reader to locate the specific item to which you refer.

How do I effectively cite quotations? Use double quotation marks to enclose the direct text. For short quotations (of less than
three lines), use a brief phrase to introduce the quotation. For example:

As Neville emphasises,
“you should cite all sources and present full details of these in your list of references” [1].

Reference: [1] C. Neville, The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism, 2nd ed. Maidenhead: Open University Press, 2010, p.37. Note: The page number is added to the end of the reference. 

For longer quotations (of three lines or more)  you use block quotation, without quotation marks, but clearly indent the quote to indicate these words are not your own. For example: Neville comments that:

It can sometimes be difficult, if not impossible, to avoid using some of the author’s original words, particularly those that describe or label phenomena. However, you need to avoid copying out what the author said, word for word. Choose
words that you feel give a true impression of the author’s original ideas or action [1].

The in-text citation is given at the end of the quotation and before the punctuation, with a full reference, including page number,
in the reference list being given as in the example above."

[1] University of York (2012b) Reference with confidence. IEEE Style. Available at: (Accessed: 16 August 2016).

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