Architecture - Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion: How Religion Impacts Architecture
Resources addressing the diversity, equity, and inclusion in the architecture community.
- By women for women: modernism, architecture, and gender in building the new Jewish society in Mandatory Palestinehis article explores issues of gender and modern architecture in Mandatory Palestine in the context of 1920s and 1930s modernism. Women architects, newly immigrated from Germany, collaborated with WIZO, Women's International Zionist Organisation, in building Domestic Science and Agriculture training schools for Jewish immigrant women in the country. WIZO adopted the concept of the modern domestic sphere, particularly the rational kitchen, believing that a modern and efficient household will benefit women and society as a whole. Thus, their planned schools were to be modern both in appearance and in their built-up space: rational, airy and full of light. The women architects who studied and worked in Germany prior to their immigration, emphasised these modernist concepts in their design. These early ambitious architectural achievements by women for women were unique in the context of modernism and helped structure the national identity of the ‘New re-formed domestic woman’ in Mandatory Palestine.
- Design guidelines for female Muslim prayer facilities in public buildingsPracticing Muslims pray five times a day during specified periods. Hence, public buildings in many Muslim-majority countries tend to have prayer facilities. These facilities are typically gender-segregated. Unfortunately, for a long time, the main focus for the design of these facilities has been on the male facilities. As a result, many female users suffer from using facilities that are not safe, hygienic or comfortable. Part of the reason is the lack of guidelines that help designers provide a facility that satisfies the needs of female users. This paper aims to address this problem with a focus on prayer facilities that are in public buildings and not in mosques.
- Hindu Temple Development in the United States: Planning and Zoning IssuesHindu temple construction has become common in suburban areas of the United States, following a steady wave of immigration from India. Immigrants hope to pass along traditional beliefs and cultural practices to a generation rapidly approaching adulthood. Small but committed groups have raised millions of dollars to build over 200 temples in the 1980s and 1990s. Temple builders face the usual land use concerns of any rezoning request, such as providing parking or shielding neighbors from externalities such as light and noise. Some proposals have met resistance from the established community based on misunderstandings and fears about Hindu practices and beliefs. Such resistance has slowed but not stopped the diffusion of Hindu temples across the United States.
- The Effect of Religion and Denomination on Calmness in Residential Spaces Based on Islamic TeachingsAs elements of culture and also as social-cultural phenomena, religion and denomination are the sources of creating change, difference and contrast in various places. Although indifference has been practically the approach adopted toward religion and its belongings in the contemporary world and today's human life, the religious and Islamic discussions have been among the important issues drawing a lot of attentions from the contemporaries in the theoretical arena. Islam has paid a particular attention to the house as the place of living and calmness for the human beings and believes in certain conditions for it. The theoretical foundations of Islamic mindset are neglected in today's houses so they are in need of revitalization in their designs and redesigning based on the original Islamic patterns. Nowadays, spatial meaningfulness is among the most important solutions of granting quality to the architectural spaces, especially residential spaces, and the designers and architects are making efforts in the area of paying attention to such concepts as calmness that can subsequently lead to the psychological health. The environmental designers and planners have paid attention to the quality of spaces and the role of perceptional indicators in forming the various spaces with the development of the human communities and appearance of meanings' gaps in the constructed spaces. These are the spaces that induce a sense of tranquility and pleasure followed by a sense of attachment and identity to the audience mind and revive the feelings of being present and existent in them. In this article, the effect of the Islamic teachings on the architectural spaces and places as theoretical bases has been investigated in various areas. The current article has been conducted with the objective of investigating the Islamic architectural pattern related to the housing in the Holy Quran's ĀYĀT and the possibility of using it as an Islamic pattern as a result of doing research and exploration in the Holy Quran, Nemooneh Interpretation and relevant articles and books. The achievement of the Islamic pattern and methods for semantic qualification and their application to a place and creating of an environmental calmness followed by psychological health based on the Islamic teachings in the residential spaces are among the findings underlined by the present research paper.
- The Problems of Sinicizing Beijing's MosquesThe "Sinicization of religion" that is being implemented in China since 2016 has not only adversely affected the practice of Islam by Hui Muslims but it has also impacted upon the architecture and decoration of mosques where Hui communities live. This article argues that the politics of Sinicizing religious spaces is inherently problematic; it involves issues of what exactly constitutes "Sinicization", and assumptions behind the choices that Muslims make regarding mosque architecture and decoration. To illustrate the intricacies of the matter, this article compares two large mosques in Beijing. The Niujie mosque is an example of an old and traditional "Chinese" Muslim place of worship, and as such, may be classified as "Sinicized", and approved of by the Chinese state. In contrast, the large, modern Doudian mosque, with its "Arab" style tall minarets and bulbous domes might be considered alien to Chinese tastes, however, such suppositions gloss over its hybrid architectural and decorative features and the multiple reasons for choices made in its design.
- The Anticipated Mosque: The Political Affect of a Planned BuildingThe construction of new, purpose‐built mosques in Europe often stirs a number of controversies. This paper looks at one such project: a new mosque building in Almere, a town near Amsterdam. It focuses on two kinds of controversies: discussions between various kinds of mosque committee members about aesthetic preferences and how they relate to members’ views about Islam in Europe, and neighborhood protests against the new mosque. Although the latter kind of conflicts have attracted some scholarly attention, most of this work treats these conflicts as discursive controversies and gives little attention to the material form. On the other hand, there is a new kind of literature on creativity and architectural design that emphasizes material processes but fails to analyze how these processes are related to larger political issues. By focusing on the temporal aspects of material processes, particularly the attention to form, I seek to merge these two approaches in order to analyze the mosque controversies as at once material and political.
- From wandering to wat: creating a Thai temple and inventing new space in the United StatesBuilding a distinctive Buddhist architectural style temple in the United States is a transnational project. It involves not only transmigrants, but Buddhist monks within and outside the United States, as well as local people of different cultural, religious, racial, and ethnic backgrounds.
Drawing from my fieldwork conducted among middle-class Thai transmigrants at a Thai temple I call Wat Thai of Silicon Valley,6 I will explore the following questions: how do U.S. building codes and Thai Theravada Buddhist regulations shape the process of building a chapel? How do the Thai transmigrants simultaneously negotiate two different kinds of regulations informed by different cultural logics with regard to space? These questions have led me to focus on two aspects of place-making. The first involves local and federal regulations: how building codes constrained construction of the chapel, and what strategies the temple employed to negotiate these constraints to ensure that permission to build would be granted by city authorities. The second involves Theravada Buddhist regulations: how Buddhist beliefs shaped the chapel space, and how the temple members disrupted some “traditional” Thai practices and created distinctive space by embracing cultural symbols of both Thailand and California.
- Sacred Architecture byCall Number: 726 M281s 1996 - ARCH LibraryISBN: 1852303913Publication Date: 1993-09-01For much of our history all architecture - not only religious monuments and buildings - created the physical context of the sacred. It can be seen in buildings as diverse as the Parthenon, Hopi initiation lodges, Stonehenge, the Temple at Luxor, the cathedrals, and the Palladian memory theatre, in which astronomical, mythical, geometric and structural patterns have been incorporated.
- Houses of God byCall Number: Stacks QUARTO 726.0903 C949h - ARCH LibraryISBN: 9781920744977Publication Date: 2004-10-18The subject of architecture for religion continues to fascinate. 'Houses of God: Religious Architecture for a New Millennium' by noted author and architect Michael J. Crosbie, demonstrates an inspiring array of gathering places for worship, collected from the USA and abroad. These projects, illustrated with superb photography and detailed plans, demonstrate how architects and congregations can work together to build places that satisfy often complex cultural and personal needs. There are churches, synagogues and temples by some of the world's leading architects, including Tadao Ando Architect and Associates, Heinz Tesar, Gould Evans and many others. AUTHOR: Michael J. Crosbie is an architect, author, journalist and teacher. He is the author of numerous books on architecture and has written for a number of journals and magazines. He is currently the assistant editor at 'Faith andamp; Form', teaches architecture at Roger Williams University and has lectured at architecture schools in North America and abroad. SELLING POINTS: - Third title in IMAGES' sell-out religious architecture series that has a captive and loyal returning audience around the world. New layout and design. - Superb colour photography captures the latest designs and renovations for over fifty churches, synagogues, temples and inter-faith centres, each drawing either from age-old tradition, or daring to chart new waters for religious expression. - Features project descriptions and many plans. - Authored by renowned author and professor Michael J. Crosbie ('Architecture for Architects', 'Architecture for the Gods I and II'), Editor-in-Chief of 'InterFaith and Form' magazine. Former editor of 'Progressive Architecture' and 'Architecture' magazines. 288 col., 58 b/w
- Transcending Architecture byISBN: 0813226805Publication Date: 2015-03-15Since the mid-1960s, skepticism about organized religion has largely eliminated discussion of the sacred from architectural curricula. This secular turn did not mean that all consideration of transcendence evaporated from our teaching and practice, but the operative program for such study decisively shifted. Despite orthodox modernism’s wish for an architecture founded on “pure” utility (on efficiency, science, production, technology, forthrightness, and so forth), architects and architectural educators still intuitively recognized that buildings had to serve “other” needs. Humanity yearned beyond the pragmatic, mechanical, or biological. Instead of the temple, cathedral, mosque, or synagogue, the art museum became the alternate venue...
- The Transnational Mosque byISBN: 9781469621173Publication Date: 2015-10-08Kishwar Rizvi, drawing on the multifaceted history of the Middle East, offers a richly illustrated analysis of the role of transnational mosques in the construction of contemporary Muslim identity. As Rizvi explains, transnational mosques are structures built through the support of both government sponsorship, whether in the home country or abroad, and diverse transnational networks. By concentrating on mosques--especially those built at the turn of the twenty-first century--as the epitome of Islamic architecture, Rizvi elucidates their significance as sites for both the validation of religious praxis and the construction of national and religious ideologies. Rizvi delineates the transnational religious, political, economic, and architectural networks supporting mosques in Saudi Arabia, Iran, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates, as well as in countries within their spheres of influence, such as Pakistan, Syria, and Turkmenistan. She discerns how the buildings feature architectural designs that traverse geographic and temporal distances, gesturing to far-flung places and times for inspiration. Digging deeper, however, Rizvi reveals significant diversity among the mosques--whether in a Wahabi-Sunni kingdom, a Shi&8219;i theocratic government, or a republic balancing secularism and moderate Islam--that repudiates representations of Islam as a monolith. Mosques reveal alliances and contests for influence among multinational corporations, nations, and communities of belief, Rizvi shows, and her work demonstrates how the built environment is a critical resource for understanding culture and politics in the contemporary Middle East and the Islamic world.
- The Suburban Church byISBN: 9780816694952Publication Date: 2015-12-15After World War II, America's religious denominations spent billions on church architecture as they spread into the suburbs. In this richly illustrated history of midcentury modern churches in the Midwest, Gretchen Buggeln shows how architects and suburban congregations joined forces to work out a vision of how modernist churches might help reinvigorate Protestant worship and community. The result is a fascinating new perspective on postwar architecture, religion, and society. Drawing on the architectural record, church archives, and oral histories, The Suburban Church focuses on collaborations between architects Edward D. Dart, Edward A. Sövik, Charles E. Stade, and seventy-five congregations. By telling the stories behind their modernist churches, the book describes how the buildings both reflected and shaped developments in postwar religion--its ecumenism, optimism, and liturgical innovation, as well as its fears about staying relevant during a time of vast cultural, social, and demographic change. While many scholars have characterized these congregations as "country club" churches, The Suburban Church argues that most were earnest, well-intentioned religious communities caught between the desire to serve God and the demands of a suburban milieu in which serving middle-class families required most of their material and spiritual resources.
- The Iranian Expanse byISBN: 9780520290037Publication Date: 2018-06-08The Iranian Expanse explores how kings in Persia and the ancient Iranian world utilized the built and natural environment to form and contest Iranian cultural memory, royal identity, and sacred cosmologies. Investigating over a thousand years of history, from the Achaemenid period to the arrival of Islam, The Iranian Expanse argues that Iranian identities were built and shaped not by royal discourse alone, but by strategic changes to Western Asia's cities, sanctuaries, palaces, and landscapes. The Iranian Expanse critically examines the construction of a new Iranian royal identity and empire, which subsumed and subordinated all previous traditions, including those of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Anatolia. It then delves into the startling innovations that emerged after Alexander under the Seleucids, Arsacids, Kushans, Sasanians, and the Perso-Macedonian dynasties of Anatolia and the Caucasus, a previously understudied and misunderstood period. Matthew P. Canepa elucidates the many ruptures and renovations that produced a new royal culture that deeply influenced not only early Islam, but also the wider Persianate world of the Il-Khans, Safavids, Timurids, Ottomans, and Mughals.
- Nothingness: Tadao Ando's Christian Sacred Space byISBN: 9780415478540Publication Date: 2009-08-03Based around an interview with Tadao Ando, this book explores the influence of the Buddhist concept of nothingness on Ando's Christian architecture, and sheds new light on the cultural significance of the buildings of one ofnbsp;the world's leading contemporary architects. Specifically, this book situates Ando's churches, particularly his world-renowned Church of the Light (1989), within the legacy of nothingness expounded by Kitaro Nishida (1870-1945), the father of the Kyoto Philosophical School. Linking Ando's Christian architecture with a philosophy originating in Mahayana Buddhism illuminates the relationship between the two religious systems, as well as tying Ando's architecture to the influence of Nishida on post-war Japanese art and culture.
- The Divine Nature of Power byCall Number: Stacks 726.19510951 J61Zm6 - ARCH LibraryISBN: 9780674025134Publication Date: 2007-07-31Built around three sacred springs, the Jin Shrines complex (Jinci), near Taiyuan in Shanxi province, contains a wealth of ancient art and architecture dating back to the Northern Song dynasty (960-1127). The complex's 1,500-year-long textual record allows us to compare physical and written evidence to understand how the built environment was manipulated to communicate ideas about divinity, identity, and status. Jinci's significance varied over time according to both its patrons' needs and changes in the political and physical landscape. The impact of these changes can be read in the physical development of the site. Using an interdisciplinary approach drawing on the research of archaeologists, anthropologists, and religious, social, and art historians, this book seeks to recover the motivations behind the creation of religious art, including temple buildings, sculpture, and wall paintings. Through an examination of building style and site organization, the author illuminates the multiplicity of meanings projected by buildings within a sacred landscape and the ability of competing patronage groups to modify those meanings with text and context, thereby affecting the identity of the deities housed within them. This study of the art and architecture of Jinci is thus about divine creations and their power to create divinity.
- Architecture for the Shroud byCall Number: Stacks QUARTO 232.966 C247Zs4ISBN: 9780226743165Publication Date: 2003-03-01The famed linen cloth preserved in Turin Cathedral has provoked pious devotion, scientific scrutiny, and morbid curiosity. Imprinted with an image many faithful have traditionally believed to be that of the crucified Christ "painted in his own blood," the Shroud remains an object of intense debate and notoriety yet today. In this amply illustrated volume, John Beldon Scott traces the history of the unique relic, focusing especially on the black-marble and gilt-bronze structure Guarino Guarini designed to house and exhibit it. A key Baroque monument, the chapel comprises many unusual architectural features, which Scott identifies and explains, particulary how the chapel's unprecedented geometry and bizarre imagery convey to the viewer the supernatural powers of the object enshrined there. Drawing on early plans and documents, he demonstrates how the architect's design mirrors the Shroud's strange history as well as political aspirations of its owners, the Dukes of Savoy. Exhibiting it ritually, the Savoy prized their relic with its godly vestige as a means to link their dynasty with divine purposes. Guarini, too, promoted this end by fashioning an illusionary world and sacred space that positioned the duke visually so that he appeared close to the Shroud during its ceremonial display. Finally, Scott describes how the additional need for an outdoor stage for the public showing of the relic to the thousands who came to Turin to see it also helped shape the urban plan of the city and its transformation into the Savoyard capital. Exploring the mystique of this enigmatic relic and investigating its architectural and urban history for the first time, Architecture for the Shroud will appeal to anyone curious about the textile, its display, and the architectural settings designed to enhance its veneration and boost the political agenda of the ruling family.
- A History of Women's Seclusion in the Middle East byCall Number: Stacks 305.40956 C443h - Main LibraryISBN: 9780789029836Publication Date: 2006-10-17Learn how the seclusion of women can be used as a feminist defense against exploitation--and as an empowering force Internationally acclaimed author Ann Chamberlin's book, A History of Women's Seclusion in the Middle East: The Veil in the Looking Glass is a critical interdisciplinary examination of the practice of seclusion of women throughout the Middle East from its beginnings. This challenging exploration discusses the reasons that seclusion may not be as oppressive as is presently generally accepted, and, in fact, may be an empowering force for women in both the West and East. Readers are taken on a controversial, belief-bending journey deep into the surprising origins and diverse aspects of female seclusion to find solid evidence of its surprising use as a defense against monolithic cultural exploitation. The author uses her extensive knowledge of Middle Eastern culture, language, and even archeology to provide a convincing assertion challenging the Western view that seclusion was and is a result of women's oppression. A History of Women's Seclusion in the Middle East goes beyond standard feminist rhetoric to put forth shocking notions on the real reasons behind women's seclusion and how it has been used to counteract cultural exploitation. The book reviews written evidence, domestic and sacred architecture, evolution, biology, the clan, the environment for seclusion, trade, capital and land, slavery, honor, and various other aspects in a powerful feminist argument that seclusion is actually a valuable empowering force of protection from the influence of today's society. The text includes thirty black and white figures with useful descriptions to illustrate and enhance reader understanding of concepts. A History of Women's Seclusion in the Middle East discusses at length: prehistoric evidence of seclusion the sense of honor in the Middle East a balanced look at the Islamic religion the true nature of the harem the reasons for the oppression by the Taliban the positive aspects of 'veiling' seclusion as a defense against capitalist exploitation and other challenging perspectives! A History of Women's Seclusion in the Middle East is thought-provoking, insightful reading for all interested in women's history, feminism, and the history and culture of the Middle East.
- A fortress in Brooklyn : race, real estate, and the making of Hasidic Williamsburg byCall Number: eBookISBN: 9780300258370Publication Date: 2021Hasidic Williamsburg is famous as one of the most separatist, intensely religious, and politically savvy communities in the entire United States. Less known is how the community survived in one of New York City's toughest neighborhoods during an era of steep decline, only to later oppose and also participate in the unprecedented gentrification of Williamsburg, Brooklyn. Nathaniel Deutsch and Michael Casper unravel the fascinating history of how a community of determined Holocaust survivors encountered, shaped, and sometimes fiercely resisted the urban processes that transformed their gritty neighborhood, from white flight and the construction of public housing to rising crime, divestment of city services, and, ultimately, extreme gentrification. By showing how Williamsburg's Hasidim avoided assimilation, Deutsch and Casper present both a provocative counter-history of American Jewry and a novel look at how race, real estate, and religion intersected in the creation of a quintessential, and yet deeply misunderstood, New York neighborhood.
- Heritage and Sustainability in the Islamic Built Environment byCall Number: eBookISBN: 9781845646257Publication Date: 2012-05-01The essays in this book represent an up to date research and investigation into the various aspects of heritage and sustainability in the Islamic Built environments with an analysis of the problems that these cities face, as they confront the forces of gl